Wednesday, February 26, 2020
How do accounts of rural and suburban racism challenge understandings Essay
How do accounts of rural and suburban racism challenge understandings of race and place - Essay Example As a result, there is urgent need to come up with strategies to eliminate or at the very least, reduce cases of racist violence in rural areas. This essay aims at analyzing the various forms of racism in rural and urban areas of the UK, through the eyes of both the whites and the ethnic minorities. The essay also examines the various ways in which such forms of racism can be addressed. 2.0 Rural racism in the English countryside The idea of the English country side for most people is almost fantasy-like, where life is easy-flowing and communities are like Ã¢â¬Å"small nationsÃ¢â¬ . According to Garland & Chakraborti (2006, pp. 161) the rural life of most communities in England is characterized by a quite, cozy life, greenery, close-knit relations among people, and deep feelings of belonging. As a result, the country side is perceived as the place where the Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ England is represented. Accordingly, there is a common perception that the countryside is a very peaceful pl ace, with no cases of racial segregation and violence. On the contrary, other people coming from other towns and cities, especially ethnic minorities always find it hard to fit into the community life. These minorities are then perceived as unwilling to adopt the English culture, and are subject to racial discrimination. 3.0 Strategies for refiguring rural racism 3.1 Various forms of exclusion In the UK, exclusion can range from differences in skin colour, cultural identity, and economic status. Nonetheless, it seems that racial segregation is the most dominant form of exclusion practiced by most people in the UK today. The main racial categories include White, Black, and Asian. The White category according to Woodward (2004, pp.139) includes the British and the Irish, while the Black category is made up of people from African and Caribbean countries. The Asians are then categorized as being Chinese, Pakistani, or Indian. However, even within the Ã¢â¬Å"WhiteÃ¢â¬ group, the Engli sh still seem to alienate the Irish and the Welsh. The English seem to have a sense of cultural hegemony, which they believe represents true British nationalism. Therefore, any other ethnic group, especially the Irish is seen as a contaminant of British national identity. The issue of authentic Englishness then comes to the fore of societal structures, and forms a basis for racial segregation. 3.2 Definitions of rurality for indigenous and ethnic minorities, differences Indigenous people and ethnic minorities have very different perception of the term Ã¢â¬Å"ruralityÃ¢â¬ . For most whites, rurality bears the last hope for the preservation of whiteness (Garner 2007, pp.78). The countryside, should, therefore, be protected from the evils of city life, the latter which is characterized by multiculturalism and disorder, represented by ethnic minorities. Accordingly, to a majority of ethnic minorities, life in the countryside is not as smooth, since they constantly have to worry about racial abuse and violence (McKinney 2005, pp. 20). However, cases of violent assault are relatively fewer compared to reported incidents of verbal abuse. It is also alarming to note that the criminal system does not take the victimization of the ethnic minorities seriously, as the former chooses to believe in the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ of English people (ibid). As Bonnet (2000b, pp.113 ) noted, English rural dwellers always suspect and treat Ã¢â¬Å"